She died in As for the History of Blackjack Insurance. At first the rule changes were quite drastic, but very unpopular and did not last long. Betting strategies involve secret bets and elimination hands and the player with the most chips after a set number of hands wins the tournament. The way it works is the card counter keeps track of how many high cards have been dealt and how many low cards have been played in order to better guess the cards that are coming next. In another variation, the jack counted as eleven, and a jack with any other ten-valued card was considered a natural Getting this hand guarantees that the player will win the hand in addition to a 3:
The Evolution of Blackjack Gambling
Gambling scholars have argued for decades about the origins of many modern gambling games. Hey, just about everything in this universe is uncertain, but the origins of blackjack are not. The game can be traced to a number of popular European card games from as far back as the fifteenth century. Prior to that, cards were hand-painted by artists and calligraphers for royalty only, and they were primarily used for religious, educational, or ceremonial purposes.
Virtually all card games are based on some specified number of cards being dealt, with a winner determined by some happenstance of rank, suit, match, sequence, or total. In more complex card games, like poker, various combinations of rank, suit, match, or sequence may decide the winner. Blackjack is more complex than war, but much simpler than poker. There is little dispute that the first twenty-one games appeared in France in the early-to-mid-seventeen hundreds.
Because vingt-un first appeared as a private game, and was not banked by the casinos, we will never know in which French casino the game was first played. It was the custom of the time for the casinos in Europe to bank various popular games—notably roulette, hazard, trente-et-quarante, faro, and baccarat. Roulette was the most popular house-banked casino game in virtually all casinos where the game was legal.
Hazard was a dice game that was the predecessor to craps. Faro was a variation of an older card game called bassette. This was most common with baccarat, the player-banked variation being called chemin-de-fer. According to historian Rev. She died in So, in seeking the origins of vingt-un, we must look for card games that predated the mid-to-late seventeen hundreds, with a similar structure in which the winning hand was determined by the total numerical value of the cards.
As a casino game, quinze was not house-banked, but was banked by the player who dealt the cards. A standard fifty-two-card deck was used, with each card counting as its face value. Aces counted as one, and all court cards counted as ten. The deck was shuffled, and each player and the dealer were dealt one card face down. Players had to play their hands before the dealer played his. Each player in turn had the option to hit or stand, and any number of hits was permitted.
If the player achieved a total of exactly 15, he immediately turned up his cards, and provided the dealer did not also make a total of 15, the player would be paid off at 2 to 1 on his bet. If both the player and the dealer made 15, the hand was a push. The only exception was that a two-card 15, a natural 15, would beat a 15 total comprised of more than two cards. You can easily see the similarities to blackjack.
However, unlike blackjack, if the player busted with any total of more than 15, he did not have to declare his bust. He was permitted to simply tuck his hole card and wait for the dealer to complete his hand. If the dealer busted as well, those players who busted before the dealer did not lose their bets. When both the player and dealer busted, the hand was a push.
Also, unlike blackjack, the quinze dealer was not bound by house rules in the play of his hand. Just like the players, the dealer could hit or stand at his preference, provided his hand total did not exceed The dealer could then stand without hitting, on any card, even a lowly ace, and assure himself a win. In playing the game of Quinze, any time the player had a hole card of 6 or more, he chanced busting.
Also, if he had a hit card or cards showing that totaled 6 or more, he chanced revealing a bust to the dealer if he took another hit. As you can see, the game of quinze had definite psychological aspects to it, similar to poker, where the player could benefit by attempting to hide the strength or weakness of his hand from the dealer.
In any case, the basic structure of this game is undeniably the same as blackjack. Seven-and-a-half was played with a forty-card deck, from which all eights, nines, and pip tens had been removed. All cards counted their pip-values, except for the court cards which each counted as one-half.
The player could not just tuck his hole card and hope the dealer busted also. One card, the king of diamonds, was wild, and could be counted as any value.
As a casino game, seven-and-a-half was not house-banked, but was banked by the player who dealt the cards. The forty-card deck was shuffled, and each player and the dealer were dealt one card face down. If the player busted with any total of 8 or more, he immediately turned up his facedown card, and the dealer collected his bet. As in blackjack, even if the dealer busted, those players who had busted before the dealer played his hand had already lost their bets.
But similar to quinze, the seven-and-a-half dealer was not bound by house rules in the play of his hand. Obviously, sette e mezzo was related to quinze. And like quinze, optimal strategy for seven-and-a-half was based as much on psychology as math.
Since a player could have a very strong total without taking a hit if his hole card was 6 or 7, a dealer might be enticed into hitting his own hand if a player stood pat.
And, since any hole card for the dealer other than a court card, valued at one-half, was in danger of busting, a player with a poor hole card, such as ace, deuce, or trey, might get the dealer to bust simply by standing pat. I will also note that the old Hoyles describe various methods of playing vingt-un that do not resemble modern twenty-one games. In some descriptions, vingt-un was played for a common pot, where all players played against each other.
In another variation, the jack counted as eleven, and a jack with any other ten-valued card was considered a natural In most of the older descriptions of the game, the dealer did not show an upcard to the players.
As for the History of Blackjack Insurance. One other older European card game probably contributed a single feature to our modern day game of blackjack. But there was one curious feature of trente-et-quarante that later became a feature of modern blackjack.
Trente-et-quarante was a house-banked game, and the house edge came from the house taking half of all bets when both hands totaled exactly thirty-one. This feature was added to the game of twenty-one much later in its history, most likely in the U. According to Steve Forte, the insurance wager was probably added in Nevada casinos sometime around the late s.
Yet Ed Thorp provides an analysis of the insurance option in his Beat the Dealer. Since both of these books are very thorough in their descriptions of the player options, we must assume that insurance appeared in Nevada sometime between and The similarity of the insurance option at blackjack to the insurance bet at trente-et-quarante is undeniable, and as trente-et-quarante is still popular in the casinos of both France and Italy, I suspect the addition of this rule to blackjack started with someone familiar with trente-et-quarante.
A still older game that was a forerunner to both quinze and vingt-un was a game called trente-un, which was played throughout Europe back in the fifteenth century. The game was first mentioned in a sermon in by a famous French monk, Bernadine. We know the game was popular because there are recorded references to this game numerous times over the next two hundred years.
Unfortunately, none of these references make any mention of the rules of play. Most of the commentary we have on this game came from medieval religious authorities, warning their flocks that trente-un was an evil game, and urging them to put their money into the church collection baskets and not into the hands of the profligate sinners who were running these games for Satan.
One modern author who recognized that trente-un was the likely predecessor to vingt-un was Roger Baldwin, co-author of the first blackjack book with an accurate basic strategy, Playing Blackjack to Win After noting that trente-un was referenced by the famous sixteenth century Spanish novelist, Miguel de Cervantes, in a book titled A Comical History of Rinconete and Cortadillo published around , Baldwin goes on to quote from Cervantes a passage where a professional trente-un player describes his skill at the game and I love this quote: Cervantes provides no details on the rules of One and Thirty, other than various facts we can surmise: Blackjack is without question the most popular table game in terms of both land-based and online casino table games.
But like any other game, it has a particular set of rules that must be followed in order to play the game correctly and ultimately win against the house. Besides the dealer, a game of Blackjack can include between players. Each player plays against the dealer though, regardless of any others who may be at the table.
All face cards, which include King, Queen, and Jack, are all valued at 10 each. Card values 2 through 10 have values according to the number. An Ace can be played as either a 1 or an 11, depending on what makes a better hand.
You can get a better understanding of this by playing the game below, which is one of the many no download casino games featured throughout our website.
To begin the game, all of the players must place a bet. Each player, including the dealer, is dealt two cards that are either facing up or down. The dealer normally continues to draw more cards until he reaches a hard 16 hand. The Natural or Blackjack hand is where the game gets its name. These hands occur when the first two cards a player is dealt or dealer are Ace and a face card, which equals On average, this lucky hand will occur around every 20 hands.
Getting this hand guarantees that the player will win the hand in addition to a 3: In the first round of the game, splitting pairs can occur if a player has two cards that are of the same value. If this happens, the player has the option to separate the cards into two different hands and play them individually. The second hand is required to have another bet, and depending on the casino, a player will be allowed multiple resplits up to 3 or 4 if he continuous to draw the same value card.
The limitations of this rule apply to two Aces, for which a player can only draw one card for each instead of two when splitting. Doubling down is a double bet on your first two cards. When you use this rule, however, you are only allowed to draw one more card per bet. It is suggested that this hand be used when you have a hand that cannot be busted or the dealer is holding a hand that could easily lead to a bust.
Not very many casinos allow for this rule. In choosing to use the surrender, you are giving up half of your bet. It can be better than losing it all, in some cases. Insurance is offered when the dealer receives an Ace, face up. You can put up half of your original bet as insurance in case the dealer is dealt a 21, paying you 2: